XVII century historical milestone: it's the end of the Middle Ages and the feudal period, are widely deployed transition to capitalist development.
Progressive thought in the persistent quest for truth created lofty philosophical, aesthetic doctrine, and the artistic genius of the peoples-priceless treasures of art. In the work of professional artists created new strong and bright flow, styles, reflecting the diverse and complex aesthetic aspirations, tastes of different countries and nations, their social strata and groups,-barokko, Classicism, Rococo. In a more or less pure and complete form, the trend, in some aspects and elements, in a variety of succession, alloys, and the twists of these new styles and principles emerged in the work of the greatest artists of the time. Climbed giant figures such geniuses of art, like Shakespeare, Cervantes, Tasso, Rubens, Rembrandt, Velasquez. They created their mighty and wonderful individual styles, nevmestimye The older style concepts.
Yet by the end of the XVI century in the work of designated new phenomena associated with the departure from the principles and ideals of the Renaissance. In painting, replacing vysokoeticheskim motivated realism and titanic force of Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Titian, it's beautiful, sensual-exalted, but subjective and far-fetched, Mannerist art, reflected the crisis of humanistic worldview.
In the early 700s on the scene in the Italian Mannerist for poetry. His pioneer J. Neapolitan. B. Marino created the elegant poetry, but artsy style: mystical motifs intertwined it with refined sensuality. Marino preached extraordinary aesthetics: "Exciting surprise-this is the task of the poet on earth. Who can not hit, even better would be the groom." Aesthetics Mannerism impact in music, sculpture, epic poetry, where she paid tribute to such a huge and powerful artist of the word, what was Torquato Tasso.
But creativity Mannerist remains only over, occasionally flashed rather than deeply rooted in the soil of the Italian culture. In the 700 years of it has been overcome with the statement in the visual arts and architecture of a particular style, higher capable of wider, with greater power of generalization to realize the phenomenon of life, social psychology and aesthetic ideals of the new century. It was the prevailing Baroque style, as opposed to Mannerism and reflected the desire of prominent artists to return to the aesthetic ideals of the Renaissance.
Baroque art, however, did not implement this goal, and went his own, very different way. This path is determined by objective conditions and the laws of the time, its new social antagonisms, its ideological conflicts, Boren, reflections and aspirations of his people, is not similar to the people of the Renaissance. In the works of Baroque masters glorification of power and beauty of the perfect man, its dominant place in the harmony of the universe has given way to doubts, thoughts of weakness, even the insignificance of people lost in the vastness of the world. Images of the human lost its former strength and integrity, and dimming stushёvyvayas in grand ensembles, incredibly fascinating dynamic and fanciful multicolored incarnations of things and events.
Interest in the world of real-flesh remained, but now his paintings heyday of the most ardent fantasy, but arose often mystical insight suggests that nature and human life, only a illusory appearance, the mysterious "sverhmira."
Musical meaning in the Baroque era is in direct proportion to the words, images, subordinated to the transfer of affect, in its ambiguity, he approaches the character at the same time strongly emphasizes its ability to transmit a single, limited value. Music, in agreement with the general cultural expectations, tends to "synthesis of the arts." Understandable why its relationship with allegorical and emblematic teachings connecting verbal and pictorial series, with the theory of "wit", which establishes a new artistic laws of logic and the laws of the perceived new artistic logic, aspiring to seek increased expression, ambiguity of art and its ability to semantic overload and pumping voltage.
The periodization of the Baroque era.
Particular difficulties arise in the periodization of the Baroque. Usual distinction between "early" end of the XVI c until the middle of the XVII century. "Average"-up beginning of the XVIII century. "Later"-up his mid-comfortable enough, but it does not reflect the essence of the changes during the era!
Baroque music is often called the era of "from Monteverdi to JS Bach", but this entrenched since MF Bukoftsera formulation is time-limited and historically inaccurate. In fact, the Baroque in "Orfeo" by Monteverdi is a different style compared to the Baroque in the "Coronation of Pompeii." Equally extraordinary and "Baroque of Bach"-Early cantatas are a stark contrast his later writings. Yes, and contemporaries, catching Bach in old age, often professed ideas of other areas, accusing the composer evasion naturalness, in pompous pretentiousness, in ignorance of the true rules, and so on. N. "Late Baroque Bach"-In many "Baroque after the Baroque," though in the indirect form of many of the ideas baroque live and continue to be heard in the German culture, and after the death of the great cantor. But put out late from the Baroque Bach on the basis of the paradoxical cultural situation and assessments of contemporaries would be a mistake. He and the "three great SCH"-Shyutts, Scheidt, Shane representatives primarily German Baroque-most important features of their art associated with this style, with its requirements, settings, rules, the poetics of art created by the Baroque. Completely different "pace" and regularities in the development of other national versions of the Baroque.
In England, the central figure-Purcell, after which the tradition due to the socio-historical reasons breaks.
In Italy, the works of D. Scarlatti is often interpreted as "predklassicheskoe", but he has developed at least two purely baroque "Inventions" acute experimental design technician "achchakatur" (acciaccatura-letters. "Dents") and sudden modulations.
French musical art is drawn by some researchers as a pure classicism. However, the work of Louis Couperin completely "fall" of this style, as well as the practice of "not clocked Preludes", lived to Rameau. Baroque is a pure and rich tradition of French ornamentation. If we turn to the country's counter-Reformation Baroque Spain, the music she did not give anything significant, except for the theory and the works of A. Soler, a student D. Scarlatti.
Thus, in its manifestations and the development of Baroque reveals significant differences. There is no synchronization, depending on the historical and national conditions of artistic practice, art form, even the chosen genre, a "conservative" or new. According to Morozov, "Baroque, as well as other great styles, not a permanent set of features and characteristics that are inherent in him throughout his historical existence, in all national cultures and social classes."
Communication with several Baroque eras and styles, constant interaction in it old and new ideas often can not talk about the originality of certain ideas, principles. Originally their connection! Baroque extremely flexible and active style, easily enters into combination with others. Baroque can replace the "missing" phase: as in Russia is, in essence, takes over the functions of the Renaissance, in what appears his nature "grand style".
Baroque polyphony manifests itself in many different fields of culture. It Baroque opens up fundamentally new forms of artistic expression, modern drama, opera, contemporary novel ... Classification of musical styles produce important criterion-the ratio of words and music, the words are aimed at the transfer of many musical genres.
Italy XVII century, not only was the cradle of operas and great vocal skills. During the same time, she played the role of a huge experimental studio, where there were persistent search and the gradual formation of new genres and forms of progressive instrumental music. These innovative quest led to the creation of great art treasures.
Baroque and body.
Instrument most associated with the cult of the church, his tunes, their traditional warehouse and emotional systems, was a body, which has recently Venetian Cinquecento masters devoted their most innovative ideas. But things have changed now and in the organ works. Ideal culture sound Baroque organ was this "king of instruments"; he influenced and the manner of orchestral playing. The principle of separation of registers and dynamic levels simultaneously manifested in the alternation and contrasting instrumental groups. Each piece of music sounded from the beginning to the end in one nuance, or loud or quiet, and the tone that is a combination of tools, at this time, too, could not change significantly. Small Ensemble concertina or woodwind trio so treated stringed orchestra as a whole, as one organ to another register.
In his treatise A. Antenyani "organ music" (1608g.) Have been described 12 registrovki manner befitting a particular genre. These rules guided registrovke Frescobaldi in his organ works. In the future, maintained custom to give prescriptions registrovki corresponding to certain affects, genres, he followed Mattheson, Rousseau, C. Raupach.
There are open, democratic forms of music making, as church concerts. They performed not only spiritual, but also secular music. These concerts were held for parishioners indoor churches and cathedrals on Sundays after Mass celebrated. In the professional music widely infiltrated a variety of techniques varying folk melodies.
Cities spread rapidly harpsichord (cembalo) the most useful tools, quite far from the church, and to him with interest and enthusiasm turned recognized luminaries of organ music. Culture has been influenced by the body and by the oratorios and cantatas, and perhaps even opera. Girolamo Frescobaldi and his pupil Michelangelo Rossi in his Toccata and even treatments chorale melodies bring the organs of style, not only with chromatic madrigals, but with opera, oratorio, even baroque architecture. Venetian Abbé Antonio Vivaldi brought the body to the concert as a purely secular genre, brilliant, improvisational, emotional and passionate and richly saturated folk songs (note especially his magnificent concerts for organ and harp).
Formation Baroque Orchestra.
Orchestra-if we mean by that word, organized by the combination of the bow string and wind instruments, almost can be said to exist until the XVII century. Cultural music as a church and secular, was almost exclusively choral; it was polyphonic in the warehouse and was written mainly in the so-called church frets.
In the last quarter of the XVII century, about the end of the planned start-up phase in the history of orchestration. During this period, the standard 4-Tones string orchestra ousted group Strings for 3 and 5 parties, which until that time had been the rule in the orchestral works of Italian, French and German composers.
Stringed bowed bands like viols and violins were first string orchestra and by the end of this century have become entirely in group violin. Alessandro Scarlatti (1659-1725) and Henry Purcell (1659-1695)-the most prominent of those composers whose scores in practice confirms the simple truth that a better distribution of string-to four parties, namely the first and second violins, tenor violin, Cello and Double Bass (playing bass octave harmony, as an eight-and a sixteen instruments).
Two upper string group games in different scores, sometimes headlining violini, but the tenor, although almost invariably written in the key of "up" is rarely indicated.
Even genuine designation word "viola" does not clarify the differences between the type of viola and violin, t. To. "Viola" in Italian, a generic term that covers all the viol family of any size. Party bass stringed instruments in scores also uncertain until the last quarter of the XVII century. One common game digitize bass (Italian basso continuo, in French-basse continue, German-generalbass) is lower harmonic Repertoire keyboardist, lutes. Bass viols and violins low range. In a few scores of the word violone, but the big violin-cello and double bass, not to mention time Scarlatti and Purcell, when the cello has often indicated. The word "tenor violin" (tenor violin) is also found in the scores of Purcell. String group consisted entirely of the instruments of the violin type who firmly took the place of the main sound of the orchestra. Viola-dominant stringed instruments of the XVI century, made in three basic types: soprano or treble, tenor, or viola da braccio (handmade viola) and bass or viola da gamba (leg viol), approximates the size of an ordinary violin, tenor or viola, and cello, as we know them now. The fourth kind of a sixteen-bass, at one time known in Italy under the name of violone, not undergone a complete transformation of the viola in the violin, and to have survived some significant symptoms such as viols. Other varieties of viols appeared from time to time, differing from one another in size, configuration, number of strings or form, but they have not become regular participants standardized string orchestra.
The main significant differences between the types of viola and violin are: Viola flat lower deck, violins, on the contrary, rounded, rising towards the midline and the in-depth to the edges, where the back is connected to the ribs; Viola more prominent edges and sloping edges, and less prominent corners. Viola was equipped with five, six, and many strings that are configured on the system of the lute in fourths and thirds, but at the time when the scene were the violin, to compete with them at an advantage to establish a more or less standardized setting of the six strings on quarts, but with the major third between the two middle strings.
Ffs viols infinitely varied, but later their form-in the form of a letter S. They differed from the violin f-holes shaped f, while other differences yet concluded in the internal screeds and frets on the fingerboard, which were common in the lutes, guitars and related instruments; viola, they met often, but not always. This difference is reflected in the design of instruments in the sound, which have viols, the description was dull, nasal, but sharp, and the violin-a full, round and shiny. Charles II preferred violin orchestra, violin because "better and quicker than the viola," and Thomas MEIS, the famous English lutenist, points in 1676 to "molestation" Violins and recommends that, if they are added to the family of viols, and add more two theorbo to the violin "could not drown the rest of the music." While it may never be possible to determine when and by whom was built the first violin (some historians argue that Gaspard was the first Dyufoprugar. Who made the violin in Bologna back in 1511), and although the word "violono" in the meaning that is different from "viola ", occurs earlier than the middle of the XVI century, only the second half of this century marks the onset of the period during which the violin gradually replacing the viola in the orchestra, and this process continues over a century. Thus, even before Perry, Cavalieri, Monteverdi made his first experiments in the orchestration, and tools for full string orchestra ravnozvuchnogo already existed, but I had to wait for about a hundred years the appearance of the ensemble and skillful with his treatment.
Years from about 1550 to 1750 is the golden age of violin playing and the activities of several of the great masters: Gaspar da Salo, Amati, Stradivari, Guarneri and many others, manufacturing violins, violas, cellos and double basses, still not surpassed in quality that surrounded his craft atmosphere of romance, mystery and almost awe that still makes people believe in the so-called "lost secret." By the end of the XVII century progressive technique forced artists to lengthen the neck stringed violins, and a higher stand demanded lifting of the neck. In other words, the tools have been customized before the style of play they outgrown that type of party, which is almost just as well could have sung ?? and had no signs of the violin style, based on the four-stringed tuning and some fluctuations in the number of strings, but in general, keep the apartment, like a viola, and gained some practical advantage through the use of an improved screw mechanism.
Tools have been improvements in a short time, but the bow of the XVI century remained fairly primitive and awkward. Short, heavy and flexible, without a special mechanism for the regulation of tension hair bow only gradually passes through the stages of improvement on the form, clearly revealed its origin to its present state, the time of the great French master Tourte end of XVIII century. We should not imagine that the production is almost perfect violin group before the end of the XVI century and involves the immediate use of these instruments in the orchestral purposes instead of viols. Composers of the time had not yet realized that the strange sound tools can be the basis of the orchestral sonority.
At the beginning of the XVII century in the scores rarely designated instruments for which they are written. Although there can be no doubt that many of the orchestral parts in the early operas and oratorios were intended for stringed instruments, their names were not shown at the beginning of each batch, as was done in the scores of the XVIII and XIX centuries. Beginning with 1600 alone basso continuo line was pitiful canvas and it develops the instrumental parts that composers consider it necessary to write the score. In rare cases, the various tools listed on the title page of a lengthy, which served as a preface to these primitive scores of instrumental parts but few orchestrated sinfonie ritornelli and had no guidance on what instruments should play these games. Of the few existing indications, confirmed by random in the preface, as well as the nature of the parties themselves is clear that the soprano violin proved its superiority over the treble viola by the two highest strings upper parties soon after there were these new tools. In France, the soprano violin were readily accepted by the reasons, perhaps, the name is based duoi violini piccolo alia Francese (two small French violin sample) in the score of the opera Monteverdi's "Orfeo" (1607).
It is to the core group of plucked strings joined the bow string instruments with a pair of woodwind, and she grew in number and in strength of sound as long as the kernel itself finally became redundant and was not discarded as useless appendage.
Of woodwind instruments, which was destined to remain as a permanent orchestra instruments: flutes, oboes and bassoons are very common in the scores of the XVII century.
Then two kinds of flutes were used: straight, with the tip (flute-a-bec, flute douce, flute dolce, Blockflote, Schnabelflote), which blew through the end, both the flageolet or English recorder and transverse flute (flute traversiere, flauto traverse, Querflote), which in the following centuries completely replaced the previous instrument in the orchestra; distinguish it in terms of some scores were traverse, flute allemande, in English "German flute".
Straight flute equipped with seven finger holes, and with special holes for the thumbs down, usually made in three sizes. Typically consume large and medium-sized flute, having a capacity of about two octaves and sang with a limited range, which corresponded to about two octaves lower modern flute. Apparently, the basic tone of it was two feet in the first octave. Treble flute built up a quart (in F). And the lower kind of an octave lower than the treble.
Oboe-enhanced view of the primitive flute-making as well as the flute. Apparently, no less than three dimensions, of which two-foot tool considered the main view. Oboes were the core of a brass band orchestra XVII century and occupied the position of the clarinets in present brass bands and as long as there was largely supplanted them during the next century.
Oboes, apparently were used in large numbers, probably more than one per game. They played through a long and rough tongue. Soprano oboe and flute had an average of about two feet to pitch with the first octave, and all their species had six holes for the three fingers of each hand, and on top of the 7th on the bottom of the instrument to the little finger, or even as in the days Firdunga, large size tools supplied valve, which was first covered with a protective device on top with holes. Double hole for the little finger were drilled in the first flute and oboe so that the artist could use either hand to play in the bottom of the instrument. Strike closes up the hole with wax. When the valve carries his was to close the lowermost hole, it was also fitted with two closing plates, rotating one right and the other left. Depending on the tube length one tone sounded when all holes are closed. With the gradual opening of the holes in the post-sounding instrument was shortened and gave the sound of the first octave. Increasing air pressure and "fork" fingerings, gave the following (upper) and a few octave chromatic notes that extended sound range of the instrument, until the subsequent additions of holes with the valves located between the finger holes are not turned these primitive oboes and flutes in chromatic instruments late XVIII-early XIX century. Transverse Flute valve dism oboe with flaps for the lower C HES were known before the end of the XVII century and remained the standard type to the end of XVIII.
Bassoons caught in the scores of the XVII century, mostly in the second half. Folded in half pipe bassoon is the most significant difference between the actual and the kind of old bassoon bass oboe, pommer, or bombard, as well as between the tenor and the tenor oboe fogotom. Of the many types of manufactures bassoons-ordinary bass instrument, which had a total length of pipe about eight feet and Range two and a half octaves, apparently, was the most appropriate tool to perform bass lines, along with the bass strings in the opera, and with a bass trombone in church music XVII century.
Bassoons of the XVII century, by Pretorius, had two valve cover up the hole F & D, the lowest of his music, and its volume reached down to the sound of C (eight feet). At the end of this century, has become known in the lower valve, set a far amount of the instrument at the bottom. Gabrieli (1557-1612) and Schutz (1585-1672) was probably the first composer to have survived Bassoons.
This tool starts dating in scores until mid-century. Cornetti, or German Zinken, constantly connected as a soprano instruments trombones in church music of the XVIII century, and had nothing to do with the cornets of the XIX century, except for the name and the cup-shaped mouthpiece through which a column of air is caused to oscillate in the same way as that of copper tools. Only rarely did the party for cornetti met in opera scores of the XVII century and were used during the first half of the XVIII century church music in their native, original role. These obsolete tools were a separate class. Cornetti had strictly conical tube, but without expanding
the bell; they were made of wood or ivory, and had a hole for the thumb at the bottom and not covered with six holes on top of the valves to shorten the air column as the flute, oboe and bassoon.
Mouthpiece (as a way of injection) still looked like a mouthpiece brass instruments with which cornetti belonged to the same group. Were used two types of tools: one-slightly curved, others are straight; Recently, obviously, had a softer sound and called cornetti muti, or German still Zinken. As the mouthpiece, and the entire tool was made from a single piece of material. Know of at least three sizes cornetti. Of these, apparently favored had an average length of about two feet, with a range of approximately soprano voice. Smaller, according to the party cornetti from Monteverdi, reached the top of the third octave d and, obviously, was the instrument of which required considerable fluency in performance. Lots to clornetti continue to meet in the first half of the XVIII century, and even in this late opera as "Orpheus," Gluck (Vienna, 1762), and the tool will completely disappear from the orchestra.
Lower cornetti was strangely Curved serpent, which existed in the orchestra a little longer. Lute, theorbo and its relative arhilyutnya or chitarrone constitute, together with the harpsichord, spinet and organ basis of those primitive bands, which were used to accompany the vocal parts of the first operas and oratorios since 1600. This is the time for these instruments have been invented by the party to digitize bass, or basso continuo. Although no special tools parties in scores was not, yet it is clear that these strings and keyboards, playing it together, one by one, gave a constant harmonic basis orchestral music, even after a long time after a string orchestra was good enough organized to independently perform this major role.
Throughout most of the XVII century and a vocal solo recitatives accompanied not written accompaniment, but only a bass line that performers on stringed plucked chords harmonized according to the figures. This system is slowly dying and it is well known, remained in the period of Haydn and Mozart in the accompaniment recitatives secular, religious and dramatic music, despite the fact that the lute out of use, fully transferred its functions to the keyboard instruments.
Trombones, as cornetti, occasionally found in opera scores of the XVII century, but in church orchestras used widely. Trombonovye games since the end of the XVI century are found in the works of Giovanni Gabrieli, organist of the Cathedral of St.. Mark's in Venice, and in the operas of Monteverdi and Honor. Legrenzi orchestra in the church of St. Brand (1685) had three trombones.
Trombone-only orchestral wind instrument, which was mechanically perfect even before the emergence of organized bands. According to Pretorius, uses four types: alto, obviously in F, tenor in B (an octave below the alto) and "octave" in In quint lower than quart. Mersenne describes seven positions wings, through which the tool has a full chromatic scale across the whole range, except for the bottom thereof. By the end of the XVII century a soprano trombone in B (an octave above the tenor) and soon began to meet occasionally in the scores under different names. Tromba da tirarsi Bach was nothing more than a soprano trombone .VOTOT tool should not be confused with the English pipe with the lifting arm of the XIX century, which was equipped with a small swing arm, sliding toward the performers on long enough to lower the open notes a semitone or tone, then a drawstring soprano trombone pushed forward in the opposite direction to lower the open sound of a semitone to the diminished fifth.
Although soprano trombone was known composers of the XVII century, and its place as the highest instrument family, constantly seized cornetti. Even during the first half of the XVIII century, these antiquated tools are usually used in church music, along with three trombones.
It seems strange that so long neglected composers more frequent use of trombones in his opera orchestra. Despite the constant struggle with the imperfection of natural horns and pipes, composers; began regularly include trombones in opera scores with a certain regularity only after the middle of the XVIII century, but before the beginning of the next century did not give them access to a live orchestra.
In opera scores of the XVII century frequent Trumpets in dramatic situations militant or solemn character. Required that the tube is a tool for the execution of the party was either eight or about seven feet in length; thus yielded C or D. D variables in C can be obtained by Krumbugel, that is, the present crown. Trumpets in the scores of the XVII century, is not transposed, they were a type of "fanfare", or written in the high register. Pipes that time has long been associated with (and sometimes designated) the term "clarion" (light), but the differences between the two values of the term (first-top natural scale used most often, the second-name of the tool itself) did not follow from designations and records Trumpets in the XVII century until the time of Stradella, when they begin to appear party florid obbligato, typical of the well-known style "Clarino" Handel and Bach.
Timpani connected with pipes in the scores of Lully and other French composers. Constant and close combination of trumpets and kettledrums in the XVI and XVII centuries persistently indicates that they were used together with the pipes, even in the absence of specially written for them parties in the scores. Illustrations in the works Firdunga, Pretorius and Mersenne depict timpani in their present form with screws to adjust around the rim. Tremolo is not found in the scores of the XVII century, although repetitive sixteenth in some games you can find.
Orchestral horn, which arose through the development and improvement of the semi-circular or circular hunting horn, despite the party Lully for trompes de chasse in "Princess of Elis" (1664) and several other questionable examples, refers to the orchestra of the XVIII century, as well as the clarinet. All except for their horns modern orchestra were presented in the scores of the XVII century its main types.
Flutes, oboes and trumpets usually have two games, which in contrast to the later custom designed, probably, for the execution of more than one instrument for each lot. Bassoons had only one game and always bass. In Trombones already envisage the adoption is now a group of three instruments. It is noteworthy that although all wind instruments made of three, four or more dimensions, the size of the instrument, finally preserved in the orchestra, was the most common and at the end of the XVII century.
Two-foot flute and oboe, bassoon, and an eight-foot pipe is widely used and has, apparently, were the main type, whereas the party for both large and smaller instruments of the same type found only in exceptional cases. Party to the other is usually outdated tools found occasionally, but already. in the XVII century, the process of "survival of the fittest" among wind instruments is in full swing, and, although the composition of the brass band is far from being established, it appears that at the end of the century flutes, oboes, bassoons, trumpets and timpani are on the right way to becoming as integral members of the orchestra.
By the end of the century string band finally formed in composition. The study scores, left composers, musical activity which lasted from about the end of XVI almost to the end of the XVII century, the state is indicated by the growth of the orchestra and art in his first, or initial period. The art of orchestration is necessary formal, though hardly understanding by the beginning of the first year of the XVII century; began composing music for orchestral instruments and paved the path of liberation from the shackles of pure vocal style.
Claudio Monteverdi orchestral innovator.
Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643) manifests itself as a creator of the first orchestral effects, as an innovator, whose daring, although not systematic work on its nascent orchestra, proved to be too bold, that would soon turn into a vernacular language of instrumental music. Monteverdi was the first composer to try to use the individual properties and technology tools to enhance the dramatic expression and successfully apply effects, which at that time for its novelty were marvelous. The music of that time was a lot of undefined methods of instrumentation, and more particularly certain groups of instruments to satisfy a significant diversity of voices, though each group is used consistently throughout the whole part or scene, the contrasts are too far away and it creates a principle of orchestration, which remained in force more than half a century.
Perhaps the most remarkable of the extant works of Monteverdi is "The Battle of Tancred and Clorinda," written in 1624 but not published until 1638 th. In this work the composer introduces two new truly orchestral effect. Everyone had to hear the performers pinched fingers the strings of their instruments, but only Monteverdi had the idea to use this technique as an orchestral effect. He created the effect of pizzicato (pizzicato canceled inscription "Qui si ripiglia l'arco"-now we must again take a bow). And the second orchestral effect is the germ of the modern tremolo. The opportunity to repeat a note with unlimited speed-characteristic property of stringed instruments; Monteverdi was the first composer who applied fully the effect of continuous repetition of music as an accompaniment. The introduction of these effects composer, of necessity, broke with the vocal style of writing for instruments. He wrote music that could be performed only on stringed instruments, music, whose interest lies in the harmony, structure and timbre, and which did not depend on the polyphonic and simulation of motion of the vote.
Covering works by Italian composers between 1600 and 1650, we can conclude that the tonal contrasts and string effects "Orpheus" and "Battle" Monteverdi are almost the same as the achievements of orchestral effects, which, as we know, even they themselves were not developed further. Real achievement orchestra still lay in the gradual emergence of a more or less organized string orchestra. Self brushwork Woodwind still only supposed to appear, the grouping of wind in the family of wooden and copper is unlikely to even suggest underutilized benefits sharp contrast effect by alternation of strings and brass. String music took an active movement, but it barely touched something similar passages, figurations, Bow effects, despite the huge leap forward made by Monteverdi.
Among the first early Italian opera composers should include the names of Loreto Vittori and Luigi Rossi, whose works are in the first half of the XVII century, and preceded by a group belonging to the middle of the century: Cavalli (1602-1676), Honor (1623-1669), Legrenzi (1626-1690) etc. Composers followed the Monteverdi made a great contribution to the development and stabilization of critically needed if the orchestra. All of them-prolific opera composers.
The increased confidence in the String Orchestra about the most positive feature in the work of this generation. Pyatigolosny string orchestra becomes a standard. Although the three-part is commonly used to accompany vocal solos, and sometimes for the whole works. Basso continuo remains the basis of these scores and never pauses from beginning to end.
Improved violin technique. In addition to the string, the score of this period contained sometimes wind instruments. In opera scores pipes have the greatest attention, flutes and bassoons are less common, and trombones and cornetti very rarely. Timpani were used, obviously, along with pipes, but a special party for the timpani are rarely found in the scores.
Said wind instruments sometimes clearly marked as, for example, in the "Golden Apple" Honor, but very often only vague indications can be found that the party was written for another instrument, rather than strings.
Although the flute or oboe were used outdoors in brass bands before and during the XVII century, they began to regularly combined with string instruments in the works of composers higher class no earlier than the beginning of the century. In the last quarter of the XVII and during the first half of the XVIII century oboe attracts more attention than the flute or bassoon, and on a par with the pipes occupies the most important place among the wind instruments of the orchestra.
The main achievement of the orchestra in this period are as follows: a more complete and better balanced group of strings, a more accurate way of marking in the score parties intended for the individual instruments. Improved distribution of parties and more perfect harmony, the result of the overall progress of musical art and technology composition, the growth sensitivity to orchestral timbre and orchestral effects. Setting a four-part string orchestra, composers have used this structure to their overtures, dances, choirs and more important instrumental parts, but, like his predecessors, often met in the accompaniment of vocal solo violin and two bass lines. To the accompaniment of some parts in operas and dramatic works of Purcell, Scarlatti and Steffani satisfied even a violin part and basso continuo-pathetic way of orchestration, which is often met Handel and his contemporaries.
Composers wrote for the composition, how they can siting, and not for what they wanted. The decisive factor is obviously the circumstances, rather than a choice. For example, "Rozaura" Scarlatti (1690) had wind parties, "Happy Prisoner" (1693) in the overture is 4 pipe and flute, oboe and bassoon, in other parts of the opera; "Triumph of Honor" (1718) has a string Party and oboes. In "Dido and Aeneas" (1680) Purcell needed only strings, while in his "Diokleziane" (1690) required strings, oboe, flute, tenor oboe (in the "Second Music"), bassoons and trumpets. Do not play the flute in "Second Music", otherwise its composition could be considered complete. Wind instruments do not take part in the overture.
Later essay independent parties Woodwind was in itself an important step forward. At the disposal of the orchestra, new means to achieve a variety of orchestration, and new opportunities so there were endless.
XVII century gave String Orchestra individuality and sustainability. Woodwinds received a share of independence, but without individualization, while copper has not yet formed an independent group. Keyboard instruments still held its central position in the pyramid orchestral organization, although they have not yet threatened complete extinction, but after contacting the sinecure was approaching: Field activities and progress with the orchestration of the time was divided between the theater and concert hall, and the church has lost value in this respect. Polyphony with her companions-imitation and fugue form, yet firmly holding the orchestration, but it will gradually wear pressurized style based on harmony and rhythm, and a more comprehensive coverage of instrumental timbres.
The study of orchestration, covering the first half of the XVIII century and the overlapping years of the early works of Haydn and Mozart, should not only include the work of the two most prominent composers of Bach and Handel, but also a large number of German, Italian, French composers, whose music currently has only a handful of historical significance. Among the Germans, the Hamburg group: Kaiser, Mattheson, Telemann and Shtoltsel, Graupner, Shyurman both Graun and Johann Karl in Berlin, Hasse, Johann Christoph Bach, F. E. Bach, sufficiently prominent composers.
Vienna Group-Fuchs, Conti, Caldara, and their followers Reuter, Mohn and Vagenzaylem while Campra, Desmarais, Destouches followers of Luli in Paris, and, finally, are the representatives of the French Rameau orchestration. Close acquaintance with the orchestra and its instruments, advance composing and performing techniques, together with the accumulated experience, which comes with the maturation of the art, given the works of these composers of the XVIII century a more sustainable style, it is easy to distinguish them from the scores of immature attempts leading composers of the late XVII century.
Innovations have become ubiquitous, and this has led to familiarity, which resulted in the great confidence. Nevertheless, in the broadest sense of the word would be correct to the conclusion that the period of conservative composers Bach and Handel trotting along the road, trampled her and made more smooth, but did not change its direction, and did not investigate its side trails. "The Servant Mistress" (1731) by Pergolesi, as well as some of his cantatas and "Stabat Mater" (1736), written for strings only. Opera "Brother Love" (1732) by the same author composed for strings with a few short Flute, as well as its "Adrian" (1734)-preimuschestvenno for Strings with parties or flutes or oboes and bassoons, voltorn and pipes in certain parts of opera.
"Elipidiya" Vinci (London 1725) has lots of oboes, trumpets and strings in the overture, ostalnostalnaya same part designed, probably on some strings or oboes and strings. In "Demofont" (1741) Leo uses only strings and horns. Bononcini's opera overture "Turno Aricino" written for oboes and bassoons, and then in some parts appears transverse flute. "Griselda" Bononcini, published in the score Walsh (London 1722), requires a full orchestra typical of the period, namely: flutes, oboes, bassoons, horns, trumpets, timpani and strings, but only rarely uses more than four separate parties in the whole composition .
First orchestral concert appeared in the form of the Baroque concerto grosso, where a group of soloists ("concertina") competed with the main orchestra ("ripieno"). In Corelli concerto grosso consists of 5-6 parts, concertina played by two violins and cello; Handel continues this tradition.
Even further stepped Bach, for which the essence of the concert was not so much competition instruments as voices: no accident that he called one of harpsichord pieces, which confront each other is not the same sound two keyboards tool-Italian concert.
Composition Brandenburg Concertos: 1.-3 violin oboe-bassoon, 2 horns and bow-continuo, violin, flute, oboe, trumpet-bow-continuo bow and continuo violin, 2 flutes, bowed-continuo violin, flute, harpsichord and bow-continuo stringed orchestra (without violins) and continuo.
The transition period from contrapuntal manner interpretations of orchestral instruments, best known for the works of Bach and Handel, to the beginning of modern orchestration, practiced by Haydn and Mozart, was not limited to a few years in the middle of the XVIII century. Although there was a change of style in about the middle of the XVIII century, it would be more correct to assert that the transition took almost a whole century.
In Italy, in the first quarter of the XVIII century, Alessandro Scarlatti made the first tentative steps that led to the modern orchestration. His Italian receivers are representatives of relative stagnation in this regard. Sudden shift produced in France and Rameau, only partially bridge the Strait, which in Germany and Austria was more fully represented by a chain of composers, in which Kaiser, Telemann, both Graun, Hasse Vagenzayl and CPE Bach were strong functioning. Glitch associated with Vienna and Paris, is an important link in the chain end of this progress, and in his mature works, written for the Paris Opera between about 1770-1780 years, the transitional period is reflected not in the process of moving forward, and as it is already ended .
Special paint sound of wind instruments has been applied to more short musical constructions. The results of the transition to the individual parties can be summarized as follows: Flute tend to go up and when duplicating oboes they always play an octave higher. Oboe and Bassoon become less flowery and mobile and have more sustained notes than strings. They win in personality and acquire the ability to be used together as a harmonic tools even more than clarinets and bassoons in the orchestration of the XIX century.
Woodwinds exempt from continuously overlap with the figures and passages from the strings. They want some individuality and independence of style. Horn became lower tessitura and universally lost melodic character that distinguishes the party horns in Handel. Their role is rather to ensure that confer resistance and connectivity to all members of the orchestra than to perform independent melodic or musical phrases.
Stop writing high party clarion pipes. These tools instruct the party in a more comfortable register between 3-mi 12th overtones, and instead engage in contrapuntal or melodic movements pipes go to their characteristic melodic phrases and drawings, to allocate responsibilities accents emphasize the rhythm and generally give fullness Playing in the tutti.
String Party win in diversity through freer use effects inherent in nature and technology of stringed instruments. Pizzicato, tremolo, the repetition of the same sound configurations, based on the ability with which the bow can produce rapid changes of notes on adjacent strings, all this is widely used to give mobility and shine tutti, ease and variety of accompaniment. The use of double notes attached harmony wealth in the middle register, and three-and chetyrehzvuchnye chords increase the strength of staccato chords whole orchestra.
It is clear that progress has been due to the efforts of certain composers, and that the transition process took place in parallel but independently of the old-style instrumentation that was used in contrapuntal music.
Delayed in comparison with other forms of art of the Renaissance discovery of ideas turned into a much more consistent and radical humanist comprehension problems in music. Music, like any other art, has been able to send a spectacular message, inspire passion listener to achieve ultimate power of emotional impact. Original decision was and humanistic problems revival of antiquity. Baroque music stylized antiquity, actively recycle cultural models, subjecting them to the most topical issues, often deliberately distorted ancient ideas.