Stravinsky is among the most prominent and also the most complex phenomena of musical art of the XX century. His talent developed under the influence of multilateral national artistic culture. However, early to establish a connection with a foreign culture, composer, mainly French. Once at the beginning of the First World War in the West, Stravinsky no longer returned to his homeland. Gradually, he lost a vital connection with national roots, and very soon became one of the leading representatives of Western European musical life. In a complex, tortuous evolution of his work were expressed many of the contradictions characteristic of bourgeois art of this century. However, the works of the composer, started at home, in a direct contact with the Russian reality, on the right are among the outstanding achievements of Soviet music.
Igor Stravinsky was born June 5, 1882 in Oranienbaum near St. Petersburg, the son of a prominent opera singer F. Stravinsky. Among a variety of musical experiences childhood of the future composer occupied a prominent place operatic works, with whom he had an opportunity to learn through his father's profession. Many years later, Stravinsky recalled the first visit to an opera-"Ivan Susanin" by Glinka. "That's when I first heard the orchestra-and what an orchestra! Orchestra, performing Glinka! The experience was unforgettable ... "-he wrote in his memoir," Chronicles of my life. "Early entered his consciousness also folk song he had heard in the village, where the family spent the summer months. At the age of nine years, Stravinsky began studying piano playing. Soon, he is interested in improvisation, yet not being able to record their musical ideas. The age of sixteen are the first surviving attempts works. After graduating from high school, Stravinsky, following the request of the parents, he entered the law faculty of St. Petersburg University. Among his college mates turned the youngest son of Rimsky-Korsakov, and by whom was an acquaintance with the great composer Stravinsky. Rimsky-Korsakov recommend a young musician to do with harmony and counterpoint with one of his disciples, he himself undertook to lead his studies on instrumentation and composition. These classes began in the winter 1902/1903 year and lasted about three years. Stravinsky entered the circle of students of Rimsky-Korsakov, constantly visiting him in the house. Communication with the young composer Rimsky-Korsakov and his family continued after the end of regular classes, to the death of the teacher.
In 1907, Stravinsky completed his first major work-Symphony in E Flat Major. Another little self in style, symphony testified mastering its author traditions of the Russian classics, reflecting in particular the impact of the symphony Glazunov and Tchaikovsky part.
For the creative development of the composer in the coming years was of great importance to discover new aesthetic directions. He is keenly interested in the work of artists of the "World of Art", in contemporary poetry. In concerts Siloti and "evening of contemporary music," he experiences vivid impressions of the works of French composers, particularly Debussy. Mastering the principles of the late orchestral Rimsky-Korsakov combined with elements perceived by the French musical impressionism, led to significant shifts in the style of the young Stravinsky. This is most clearly affected in two small orchestral works in 1908-Fantastic Scherzo and especially in the "Fireworks". Manifested here virtuoso orchestral timbres, extension of color elements to the role of the leading carriers of music content already foreshadowed in the direction in which the work of Stravinsky went in the coming years.
A decisive role for the further fate of Stravinsky played his acquaintance with S. Diaghilev. Energetic leader with enormous organizational skills, Diaghilev was able to attract and integrate the most prominent artists, musicians, ballet artists. He was one of the direct participants in the creation in the late 1890s, art exhibitions and the magazine "World of Art". In the 1900s Diaghilev expanded its activities to endure it out of Russia. After the 1907 cycle of concerts of Russian music in Paris, he headed the so-called "Russian Seasons" (in Paris, then in London). In "Russian Seasons" was first shown a series of Russian operas ("Boris Godunov", "Sadko", "Snow Maiden"), which were made by first-class artists, in particular Chaliapin. In the future, the main place took ballet performances with the participation of the brilliant constellation names dancers Anna Pavlova, Tamara Karsavina, Nijinsky dancer VB carried out the largest reformist choreographer Mikhail Fokin. Diaghilev paid special attention to the creation of performances attract outstanding painters who not only acted as a decorator, but often participated in the drafting of ballet scenarios. All this contributed to the great success of "Russian Seasons", which played a significant role in strengthening the worldwide fame of Russian art.
Diaghilev offered Stravinsky to compose the music for his planned national fantasy ballet based on the folk tales of the Firebird and Kaschee Immortal. The script was created with the participation of artists Fokine A. Benoit, A. Golovin and others. Golovin (with L. Bakst) did set and costume designs. Stravinsky with great enthusiasm in the short term wrote ballet music. The premiere of "The Firebird" in the spring of 1910 in Paris. It was the first reference to a genre of Stravinsky's ballet, who finished in the next few years leading place in his work. Although the "Firebird" more clearly perceptible connection with the traditions of Rimsky-Korsakov, Mussorgsky, and partly ("Night on Bald Mountain"), this work was a noticeable jump in the creative development of the composer.
Since that time, Stravinsky for many years is strongly associated with Diaghilev. Exactly one year after the staging of "The Firebird", in June 1911, in the same Paris saw the limelight second ballet Stravinsky-"Petrouchka." In his "Chronicle," the composer told some interesting details on the history of creation. Once he had the idea for a virtuoso piano piece with the accompaniment of an orchestra. Writing it, he mentally imagined image of toy dancers. Characterized this way rapid arpeggiated piano passages, as it comes to grips with the orchestra responsible threatening fanfare. Trying to find a verbal definition of the nature of the character embodies this music, Stravinsky finally realized it was Parsley, "eternal and unhappy hero of all fairs, all countries! It was-he writes-exactly what you need-I found his name, found the name! "
Diaghilev was hit on the idea of creating a whole based on this performance. Thus was born the one-act ballet "Petrushka". Scenario was composed Benois together with the composer, Benoit also belonged costumes and scenery. As a choreographer again made Fokin, excellent image Parsley found the artist in the face of Nijinsky.
From "Petrushka" Stravinsky reached full maturity. Caused when his appearance is quite stark differences in the evaluation, the product is over time to get a general recognition.
The next significant works of Stravinsky was the ballet "The Rite of Spring", which bears the subtitle "Pictures from pagan Russia." As in the case of "Petrushka", the initial impetus was associated with visual, plastic representations. Somehow surprisingly, says Stravinsky himself in the "Chronicle", in his mind, "came the picture of the sacred pagan ritual: the wise old men sit in a circle and watch the dying girl dance, which they offer as sacrifice to the god of spring, to curry his favor." Composer shared his idea with the artist Roerich, who was particularly close to old Slavic subjects, as well as with Diaghilev. Both are very enthusiastic idea of creating a new ballet. However, implementation of the plan was pushed aside writing and production of "Petrouchka." Score "The Rite of Spring" was completed in 1912, the first production took place (like the two previous ballets) in Paris, in June 1913.
The premiere of "The Rite of Spring" was held under extremely violent backlash mostly public. The unusual musical language has caused almost from the first bars of laughter and indignant cries turned into a continuous noise drowns out the music and dancers knocks. Only subsequent performances and concert music for the ballet allowed to estimate its true worth, and soon "The Rite of Spring" was recognized as one of the most important musical events of his time. In the "Rite of Spring" Stravinsky sought to convey the attitude of the ancient Slavs era of the tribal system, whose lives are deeply connected with nature. Her unknown formidable force they idolize and try to appease the rites and sacrifices. Ballet consists of two parts-paintings-"Kiss the Earth" and "The Great Sacrifice." Orchestral introduction draws spring awakening and the gradual flowering of nature. A number of dances, games, ritual actions and rituals completed the "Great sacred dance of" the chosen one-a girl doomed to death.
"The Rite of Spring" reflected further innovative Hunt Stravinsky in harmony, and rhythm of the orchestra reaching here has never been so complexity. In thematism Ballet large place occupied by short archaic folk popevki becoming typical of Stravinsky's language in a number of subsequent works with national themes. Found in the "Rite of Spring" new means of expression had a profound influence on the development of European music of the XX century.
Already since the production of "Firebird" Stravinsky associated with Diaghilev, actually settled abroad only bumping into Russia during the summer months. Since 1914 the composer, torn from their homeland military operations, remained forever in a foreign country (in the early 30-ies., He took French citizenship).
In the next few years the foreign period persists for creative connection with Stravinsky national themes, with folk music and poetic sources. This is evidenced by a number of his vocal and instrumental cycles on folklore texts ("jokes", "cat's cradle songs") and a couple of musical stage works-"a story about a fox, a rooster, a cat, and the Ram", "The Wedding", "History of the fluent soldier and chёrte "comic opera" Mavra "on the subject of the poem" The Little House in Kolomna "Pushkin. At the same time, Stravinsky a number of new aesthetic and stylistic trends, gradually leading away from his Russian subjects from art and the principles governing the early period of his career. Further stages of the evolution of Stravinsky's beyond the scope of pre-revolutionary Russian music. In this essay, they are not considered.
«PARSLEY." "Amusing scene in four films».
The effect of this "ballet-street", as he called it one of the authors, A. Benoit, occurs in old St. Petersburg of the 1830s, during festivals Shrove. The main actors-the doll between them and deployed drama, very simple, even banal. This is a story of unrequited love Petrushka, the traditional character of folk theater, to a ballerina, rejects him and he prefers Moor, who eventually kills his opponent-the parsley. Background of the drama are widely deployed paintings Shrovetide festivities, which shows the many faces that make merry motley crowd. The essence of the plan-in revealing the theme of spiritual loneliness accident Petrushka, who is opposed to the world around him-rude and angry Arap empty frivolous Dancer their common host and owner-Magician and indifferent idle crowd.
Summary. The first picture.
Festivities at the carnival. Admiralty Square in St. Petersburg, a bright winter day. In the center of the stage-Teatrika Palmer. Immediately raeshnik, carousel, swing flip, icy mountains, shop with sweets. It takes a group of drunken revelers. Farcical grandfather amuse the crowd. Appears grinder with a street dancer. At the same time on the opposite side can hear the sounds of the music box. Near another dancer dances. It turns out the old Magician. Curtain teatrika retracted, showing three puppets-Petrushka, the Ballerina and the Moor. Magician animates them touch the flute, and they start to dance.
The second picture.
In Petrushka. Parsley room with cardboard walls painted in black color, with stars and month, with a menacing portrait of Palmer on one of the walls. Someone's leg roughly pushes Petrushka through the door. He falls, and then wakes up and breaks curse. Ballerina appears, Parsley happily rushes to her, but she soon leaves. Parsley surrenders to despair.
The third picture. At Moor. Room Moor. Red wallpaper with green palm trees and fantastic fruit. Arap in a luxurious robe lying on the ottoman and plays coconut. Includes ballerina dancing first solo, then together with Arap. Parsley breaks, there is a fight with his Arap. Ballerina faints. Eventually Arap pushes Petrushka.
The fourth picture. Festivities at the carnival (in the evening). Decoration of the first picture. Sequentially passes through a series of episodes. Dancing nurses replaced by a man with a bear that walks on its hind legs to the sound of horns. Appears Ukhar merchant with two gypsies. He scatters the notes, playing the harmonica, a gypsy dance. In dashing dance act coachmen and grooms, joined by a nurse. Gradually at dusk, lit colorful sparklers. Appear mummers-the devil, goat, pig. They crack jokes and dancing. Dance is becoming common. Suddenly teatrika hear screams-runs Parsley, pursued Arap. Enraged Arap saber blow kills Petrushka (by this time the darkness thickens and starts to snow). Surrounded by a crowd of Parsley dies. Comes Magician raises corpse Parsley and shakes it, shows that it is only a doll, of which strewed sawdust. The crowd disperses, Magician pulls doll Teatrika. Suddenly over Teatrika shadow appears Parsley, threatening magician and shows him a long nose. Magician in horror releases from the hands of the doll and hurried out.
The first picture is divided into three unequal largest section. First, the most unwrapped, paints a picture of festivities. The second is related to the performance of the Magician and the revival of the dolls, the third c their dancing. Music affects the first section of extraordinary vitality, brightness in the delineation of the festive street life of old St. Petersburg. The unique "Three-dimensional" in the image of a motley, vociferous crowd reached incessant alternation of different episodes. Besides the musical language of the scene itself has a special counterpoint: it grows out of a simultaneous combination and layering of diverse intonations, harmonies, timbres, which immediately introduces the environment noisy crowds.
From the first bars in the orchestra is heard general incessant vibrating hum: voices, shouting merchants, snatches of song, and so on. D. Achieved this effect treleobraznym continuous movement, resembling garmoshechny playacting (first he intones clarinets and horns-see. Example 187a). Against this background, the flute is repeated quart turnover, which alternates with brief pentatonic popevki. This kind of speed-popevki were typical stray cries of street vendors, peddlers, singsong offer their goods. Stravinsky childhood was familiar with this characteristic phenomenon of urban life. Another song, "embryo" is also not receiving development appears in the cellos (example 187b).
All this thematic complex (like "theme celebrations") occupies a dominant place throughout the first section of the painting, alternating with other themes and again returning to the type of refrain in rondo. The first episode-the emergence of revelers danced. It is based on a true folk song "Dalalyn, dalalyn." Characterized by the presentation of the topic: the layering of different harmonies with parallel motion and sekstakkordov triads in close location. Bizarrely sounding version of the same song, with the pecking sekundovymi sound on D and E on the savoir-B flat in the bass passes rechitiruyuschuyu patter farcical grandfather.
From figures 12 to the fore grinder with a dancer. Composer showed amazing ingenuity and wit in the transmission of a specific sound hurdy-gurdy, this widespread tool in the past traveling musicians. Two Clarinets in octave sounds popular in the then city life melody of the song "Under the autumn rainy evening." Funny moments she breaks (some tube barrel organ does not work!) And starts again. Primitive valsoobrazny accompaniment harmonies tonic, dominant and subdominant are sometimes deliberately contrary to the melody. Ostinato figure shows a typical flute melodies sharmanochnyh ornament. Street dancer starts dancing to a new, lively dvuhdolnuyu melody, beating time with a triangle.
This French Song "Wooden Leg." Stravinsky once heard it played the hurdy-gurdy in the south of France.
What follows is a clever musical "trick": to re-pass alternately both themes hurdy-gurdy (three-and dvuhdolnuyu) superimposed sound of music box, too, with the song melody "philistine" folk origin ('Wonderful Month floats above the river "). Ringing tone of the machine tool plays in the orchestra bells, accompanied by celesta with some glitter-piano passages.
Upon returning theme farcical grandfather, themes, and the refrain of the song "Dalalyn" roar of the crowd grows, breaks finally deafening drumming. At the moment everything calms down-goes Magician. Begins the second section of the picture.
Music "focus" in sharp contrast to the prior around, creating an atmosphere of slightly sinister mystery. Unusually low sound color single F-sharp in contrabassoon (alternating with pizzicato basses); on a dark, creeping movement of low bassoons and clarinets respond ghostly rustling while ringing passages muted strings, celesta and harp. In harmony prevail chromaticism and unstable harmony with newts. But cadence, sung Magician flute, deliberately stereotyped and primitive (Chords and arpeggios on the tonic E-flat major, ridiculous fermata at the end of each phrase, the "sensitivity" detention at the end). Cadence removes shade of mystery, revealing artless motivated "miracle." By repeating the music of "focus" is given in a different timbre, the strings muted, sounding even more fantastic. "Russian" combines brilliance and enthusiasm with a touch mechanicalness-because dance performed by puppets! In chilly call coloring "Russian" plays a major role of a piano, which is entrusted with the main theme (supported by pizzicato strings and brass), as well as dry clicking sound xylophone. The main theme is based on the number of variant repeats short folk motif of dance, as it is continuously rotating or trampling on the spot.
The middle section of Dance (A Major) softer and more transparent, with a predominance of light high register. Recapitulation begins tart parallelisms chord piano solo:
By the end of the movement is accelerated, as it were harassed abruptly interrupts his syncopated chords that ends a room.
After the "Russian" is heard drumming (which marks the change of all the pictures). Then in the ensuing silence for a moment at the oboes there is a characteristic turnover topics Parsley:
The second picture is fully devoted to the characterization of Parsley-a little ugly man, severely suffering from unrequited love. In this music came that original sketch pieces for piano and orchestra, which Stravinsky mentioned in the "Chronicle". Royal retains a leading role in almost all along this picture.
A number of short motifs-like shrill cries, helplessly moving, impetuous and solidifying depict movement startled and gradually coming into a Petrushka. Then describes his two main themes. The first of them (the two clarinets) is based on a combination polytonal chord sounds of two major triads a tritone against (and to F-sharp), forming sekundovye "friction". They are joined by plaintive moaning bassoon (a little further motive moaning sounds of the pipe muted).
On the same basis polytonal rapidly deployed virtuoso piano passages martellata leading to the second piercing, fanfare theme (tune pipe and cornets, extended, three trombones). It is the output of the first. This frantic curses Petrushka.
Following further Adagietto (then Andantino) combines light, slightly melancholic contemplation (Parsley indulges dreams) with a touch of irony, grotesque quirkiness.
With the advent of Ballerinas (Allegro) music is fast and impulsive-ringing brilliant in color. The explosion of despair Parsley transmit solo recitative-improvised cadenza clarinet, then the piano, on the island of dissonant harmony. Again resumed nervously taut piano passages, supported by violins and clarinets, and re-sounds heart-breaking fanfare theme. Then comes the exhaustion (Lento): there are only "background" sighs zasurdinennyh Horns; the last time up and freezes the top polytonal topic in clarinets. The final picture of the sharp sound of pipes, as it emphasizes the fatal inaccessibility of happiness for Petrushka.
The third picture
Musical characteristics Moor perfectly embody his grim ferocity, flatulence and sluggishness. Diverse thematic material start painting (sharp "empty" quarts, jerky gestures-ups, descending fourths and fifths and triton parallelisms gloomy rising from creeping bass chords) forms an introduction to dance Moor. Frozen-stationary nature of the gloomy theme of dance (clarinet with bass clarinet in octaves) is exacerbated by sustained pedal. Expressive short, as if wincing English horn motif on topochuschem movement string bass.
In secondary conducting thematic material Arap his "aggressiveness" strengthened. At the end of the dance theme sounds even more gloomy and colorful, expounded in the chord "thickening" three bassoons.
On a clear rhythmic formula snare is dancing ballerina-flat, mechanically-soulless melody solo cornet-a-piston. Cadence on the sounds of flutes Chords in E flat major (roll with cadence Magician!) Serves as an introduction to the waltz-duet Ballerina and Moor.
Waltz trёhchasten. Both of his themes borrowed from Lanner waltzes. Joseph Lanner (1801-1843)-Austrian composer, one of the founders of the Viennese waltz, the closest predecessor Strauss-father and son. Themes borrowed from waltzes "Memories of Schoenbrunn" and "Styrian melodies." In its treatment of Stravinsky strengthened sentimental lyrical. He stressed the primitive, spiritual emptiness of both heroes. In the presentation of the first theme recreated painting street ensemble: bassoon plays accompaniment in the form of arpeggios on the tonic and dominant, melody takes the cornet, joined by a flute melody that intercepts cornet, then interwoven with it, and finally, doubling it in the octave using dual language . This vibrant sound increases the "sensitivity" of the melody.
In the middle of waltz composer supplies Lanner theme ironic grace note. To the clear sound of flutes and harps, low strings attached: they pose a clumsy, ungainly dvuhdolnuyu topic Moor, which continues when the melody is over the upper voices. In the reprise of the first theme of the waltz becomes even more "sweet". In her wedged "quivering" motif Moor, sounding as would be contrary to the rest of the music.
Duet interrupted by the appearance of Petrushka and goes into the struggle between two opponents. In a furious vortex motion carried by dissonant figuration parallel seconds; fragments fanfare Parsley intertwine with dotted rhythms, grace notes theme Moor. Number of fiercely pecking chords newts claims defeat Petrushka.
The fourth picture.
Again, as in the beginning of the first scene, we hear the roar of the crowd. But now it sounds in sunny holiday in D Major, orchestrate more complex and brilliant, while maintaining "garmoshechnoy" basics.
The scene is built on the principle syuitnomu. Episodes contrasting with each other. Each of them-a masterpiece of musical art characteristic of Stravinsky. Combine all these episodes garmoshechnym motive. The first episode-Dance nurses. Their are a few cutesy "krasovane" well transmitted to the initial cycles of dance, where Terzi with continuous grace notes already anticipated by the tone of the popular song "I vechor Mlada" (also known with the words "Along the Peter"). First melody appears only fragments, as if wafting from the side. Finally, he poured its full width (Violin and French Horn), ruling against the backdrop of holiday hubbub. A new element, preparing a second folk theme-dance tune "Oh, you're the shadow of my porch." She also allegedly gradually-first at the original doubling oboes newts. Defiant expression give it a unique and humorous touches of grace notes piccolo (in the example they are omitted):
Followed by three textured and tonal variation of the tune "Oh, you're the passage" in which the energy dances gradually increases. In the reprise of the theme of "I vechor Mlada" intertwined with "Oh, you're the passage," as if the two songs are heard at the same time from different kontsov.Podcherknutym contrast breaks music episode guy with a bear. Overweight bass draw waddle awkwardly standing up on its hind legs of the beast. Clarinets in sharp uppercase imitate the sound horns. In the middle register melody imitated tuba. Renewable background motion "hubbub" forms the transition to the stage Ukhar merchant with the gypsies. Passing several times sprawling phrase Strings almost visibly conveys the image of the merchant spree, that "reckless."
Outstanding musical prowess Russian figurative expression and at the same time some primordial elemental force is coachmen and grooms dance. From the outset, it is approved by an active-willed dvuhdolnaya metric ripple, emphasized by accents sforzando (string, then the tubes and tube bass sound, supported by the timpani). Here we have used authentic folk dance song "And the snow melts, the water flows from the roof." She also formed gradually. Becoming a theme corresponds to the continuous rise of the internal dynamics of dance. In the middle section reappears tune "I vechor Mlada" (in the dance come nurse). Invasive short frazki three trombones associated with rollicking dance tune "caper" coachmen.
Already met several times reception sudden disruption dance coachmen replaced episode maskers. Are dominated by fast, flitting intricately chromatic motion of strings and wood. Flirting hell outlined pecking octaves trumpet and trombone with grotesque jumps two octaves down.
Buffoonery with pig goat passed around fast dissonant chord grace notes in succession with a variable size. Chords alternate with the motive in the bass, comprising speed, similar to the chant, "We wait for the carnival." From the collection of Rimsky-Korsakov, who used the song in "The Snow Maiden", in the scene wires carnival.
The same motif on the subway sounds and rhythmic variations in the high register (flute, bells) on iridescent background ostinato Ringing in E-flat, then A-flat major. At the time of joining the other walking to dancing clowns appears the song "Dalalyn" from the first picture. On one of her intonation built a brief but powerful buildup.
Suddenly, everything is cut off ... We can only lonely sound in F-sharp in the pipes, turning into one of the motives fanfare theme Petrushka. Rapid return, anxiously taking off and flowing passages with seconds clarinet, violin and xylophone. With the theme of Petrushka fragments mixed intonation Moor. Parsley falls smitten with a fractured skull (composer instructs the score to drop at this moment tambourine on the floor).
Episode Parsley death-one of the greatest moments of the ballet music. Tremolo violas and violins on the flageolet with chromatically descending in thirds to form a tremulous background against which the clarinet, then a violin solo sounds the theme of Petrushka, unrecognizable transfigured. Maintaining the accuracy of the altitude figure fanfare theme, Stravinsky, by changing the rhythm, dynamics and tone, giving it a timid and lyrical character. In rethinking the form appears and opening phrase Adagietto from the second picture, sounding like a vague recollection, in the dim low register piccolo.
With the advent of the Magician at the horns and contrabassoon appears and its grim subject, and stringed oppose her leytgarmoniyu Petrushka. The people at odds, the scene empty. Quietly, as a remembrance of the past holiday, sounds from horns muted (then and oboes) "garmoshechny" motif background. The silence was suddenly cuts fortissimo fanfare theme of "despair" Petrushka in an extremely tense screaming timbre small tubes (for the first time entering here), supported by the usual tube. Then both tubes at three Fort intone the last time polytonal leitmotif Parsley, aggressively emphasizing its final quart turnover with sharp seconds (see. Example 190). But then, as if everything remains the same, as if nothing had happened sounds "behind the curtain" garmoshechny motive horns in C major. . . The final ballet dry octave pizzicato strings based on the sounds included in leytgarmoniyu title character. Ends score Ladovo dual-sound in F-sharp.
"Petrushka"-the product of innovative bright. There are quite original translate the traditions of Russian classical music and at the same time found expression some of the features that are typical of art from the beginning of the XX century.
The basis of design, you can see the idea of humanistic empathy hapless hero, dreams of unattainable for him staste, face insurmountable hostile forces. The image of a miserable, ugly creatures serving target for ridicule of others, but the ability to feel, goes back to the diverse traditions of classical art. Subject inner loneliness of the main character, struggles with indifferent, alien to his suffering environment close romantic art. However, Stravinsky Petrushka brings a characteristic clearly perceptible ironic tinge than removes plaque romanticism, Parsley-not a living person, and a doll, endowed with human experience. However, the unexpected resurrection brings a ballet Petrushka element of mystery, allowing different interpretations of the authors intent.
Plot motif of resurrection in the tradition of folk Parsley parsley representations, where the hero in the end always triumphs over his enemies, and his "immortality" reflects, in essence, the end of national optimism attitude.
The combination of classical tradition and contemporary art trends seen in the crowd scenes of the ballet, occupying a very prominent place. Their inverse images can be seen in many Russian operas, especially Rimsky-Korsakov (eg "Snow Maiden", "Sadko"), as well as in the "accursed power" Serov. Wonderful scene Shrovetide celebrations of this opera is most closely anticipates similar scenes of "Petrushka". But Stravinsky was able to achieve much more brightness and brilliance. His orchestral palette enriched by means of impressionist art. On the other hand, bright pictorial these scenes has analogies in Russian painting of the early XX century, for example in a number of paintings by Boris Kustodiev, a decorative and colorful paintings F. Malyavina. Self love playing the old Russian city life links "Petrushka" with one of the favorite themes of the artists of the "World of Art", and not by chance one of its leading representatives, A. Benoit, co-author of Stravinsky's helpful to create a spectacle.
Framing the ballet crowd scenes a dual dramaturgic function. It is both a "background", which played the "drama", and at the same time an essential element of the ideological concept: these scenes embody the alien hero, stood by his drama surrounding world. Mass of the people depicted in the whole narrowly sided-just as idle, primitive entertain the crowds. However, juicy and full-blooded, it is extremely relief image is certainly realistic. Like the classics, for the transmission of mass scenes Stravinsky attracts genuine consumer tonal material. But according to the site of action and depicts the social environment it selects specific layers of the material and turns it very peculiar. This is-the songs peasant by birth, but became widespread in urban life, with almost exclusively sort of dance ("Oh, you're the passage", "The snow is melting," "I vechor Mlada"); only in ballet calendar song "Dalalyn" too peculiar clearly accented rhythm. Only "I vechor Mlada" differs more raspevno character. Applying these melodies, Stravinsky comes primarily from problems playing the general atmosphere of mass festivities. Topics usually appear on the ostinato background, there are sketchy at first, then as it approached, unfold, alternate or combine together with other tunes and terminated with a scene change. Extremely characteristic of a sketch street life melody type song lyric urban-romance ("In the evening autumn rainy", "Wonderful Month floats above the river"). They are instrumental in ironic parody refraction. To the same category of "street music" refers tune "Wooden Leg" and Lanner waltz melodies, which, thanks to the specific presentation receptions, also converge with the intonation of the sphere. The composer's own themes based on typical folk intonations, different kind of techniques. This is especially multiple, accurate or variant, repeats summary popevok their metro-rhythmic shifts, variable focus, moving the start of the motif on the proportion of different clock (see. Example 187b). In terms of rhythm should be noted more frequent varying sizes, polyrhythm, and also Polymeter, and finally, have repeatedly cited melodic and rhythmic ostinato. Combination with polyrhythm ostinato forms the basis of "themes hubbub" that runs through the crowd scenes. This theme image, serving first bars of the ballet in its simplest form (example 187a), reaches its greatest complexity in the fourth picture. Multi-layered texture, with polyrhythms, visually recreates the diversity of the stage action.
Innovative nature and inherent ladogarmonicheskomu language of ballet. In fretted against the ballet as a whole pitted against each other two areas. One of them-diatonic, has been essential in the crowd scenes. For example, the tonal basis of the initial section of the first picture is in D Minor-natural or Dorian. In pure natural in C Major is given the main theme of "Russian Dance". Here you can see the inherent Stravinsky unconventional in voice-and akkordike. This is the statement of the melody on parallel sekstakkordami seasoned Dominant harmony at the beginning of the dancing, parallelisms with Quintus Septimius seconds and at the beginning of the recapitulation (Example 188). Free use of sounds diatonic chord leads to a multifunctional combinations. They founded the last chord in the final cadence "Russian Dance," combines all three basic functions (Example 189). Sometimes on a clear diatonic framework imposed dissonant "spots" suggested by the scenic situation.
Diatonic opposed to varying degrees of sophistication ladogarmonicheskaya sphere associated particularly with the characteristic image of Petrushka, partly as a Magician and Arap. These include, first of all, polytonal leytgarmoniya Petrushka. Polytonal combinations found in other places. Tselotonny scale applied in the characterization of Moor. In some moments stressed stands "naked" interval seconds (see. Example 190), there sekundovo-fourths and fifths chord complexes. The peculiarity of the harmonic vertical largely due to polifonizatsiey billing features voicings.
Amazingly orchestral mastery Stravinsky, his inexhaustible inventiveness timbre. However, the sound of the orchestra is inseparable from the invoice, from the organization of a musical fabric. Timbre in "Petrouchka"-the most active factor dramatic, painting, depicting, describing the action and its characters. Along with complex organized tutti in the score of the ballet are prominent solo individual instruments (clarinet, bassoon, trumpet in thematism Parsley, flutes and clarinets in the episode with the hurdy-gurdy, flute cadenza in the scene focus, solo cornet in a dancing ballerina, and so on. D.). Plays an important role Piano, which in many places is very responsible. A piano and celesta, along with xylophone, pizzicato strings contribute to the creation of specific dryly-brilliant, cool color that is associated with the artificial, mechanical, not the beginning of a living characteristic of the main characters of the ballet.
"Petrushka" was in a historical perspective, perhaps the highest achievements of Stravinsky in terms of popularity on a global scale. Ballet music has gained immense popularity, especially as an orchestral work. Great was the influence of "Petrushka" (along with the "Rite of Spring") on a variety of composers of the century, especially in the field of technology and orchestral timbre finds. Strongly associated with national traditions and artistic culture of his time, Stravinsky's ballet "Petrushka" was one of the brightest examples of Russian music.